Bruce Sex-Centenary Pageant: Masque of Edinburgh

Other names

  • A Masque of Edinburgh: Living and Speaking History in Thirteen Scenes.

Pageant type

Notes

The pageant was organised by the Outlook Tower Association founded in 1905 by friends and associates of Sir Patrick Geddes who wished to promote his vision.

Jump to Summary

Performances

Place: Usher Hall (Edinburgh) (Edinburgh, City Of Edinburgh, Scotland)

Year: 1929

Indoors/outdoors: Indoors

Number of performances: 3

Notes

28–30 May 1929 at 7.30 pm

The pageant, together with a 'fancy fair', was restaged one year later on 29 June 1930; it was held then to raise funds for 'social work' promoted by the Outlook Tower Association.2 The plan was to hold it outdoors in the grounds of Abden Hall, a private mansion house in the Edinburgh suburb of Colinton. In the event, it rained heavily and the pageant was performed in a church hall nearby.3

Name of pageant master and other named staff

  • Director [Pageant Master]: Nisbet, Mrs Hamilton More
  • Stage Manager: Mrs Meade King
  • Producer of Group I: Captain the Rev. Edward Mayo, SJ
  • Organiser and Stage Manager of Group I: Mrs Marie Gaffney
  • Producer and Organiser of Group II: Mrs Marie Gaffney
  • Organiser and Stage Manager of Group III: Miss Marie Pullar-Duncan
  • Property Master of Group III: J.A. Kerr
  • Wardrobe Mistresses of Group III: Mrs Morrough; Miss Marie Pullar-Duncan
  • Producer of Group V: Mr Ralph Hay, George Watson's College
  • Producer of Group VI: Miss Anstruther-Ritchie
  • Producer of Group VII: Miss M. Winstanley Brown
  • Producers of Group VIII: The Edinburgh Women Citizens' Association
  • Organiser of Group VIII: Mrs Waldo Channon
  • Convenors of Group VIII: J. Griffith-Thomas; M. McLauchlan
  • Producer of Group IX: Mr Andrew Macindoe
  • Organiser and Producer of Group XI: Mr Bruce Morgan
  • Producer of Group XIII: Mrs Finlayson Gauld
  • Organisers of Group XIII: Misses Jessie and Nannie Brown

Notes

Episodes were referred to as 'groups' in this pageant.

Alongside the Outlook Tower association, many amateur dramatic groups also took part in the pageant; although individual episodes had their own producers, overall direction of the performance was provided by Mrs Hamilton More Nisbet.4 Some episodes are not credited with specific producers or organisers; but many episodes had individuals in multiple roles.

Names of executive committee or equivalent

The Committee was probably made up of members of the Outlook Tower Association and other civic groups who took part in the pageant; it probably included many of the producers and writers. Unfortunately, details of the committee members have not been recovered. In an advertisement for the pageant, the association called for volunteers to help with practical organisation.5

Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)

  • Forbes, Madame F.A.
  • Mears, F.C.
  • Sackville, Lady Margaret
  • Crichton, D.
  • Winstanley Brown, Miss M.
  • McIndoe, Mr Andrew
  • Gauld, Mrs Finlayson
  • Burns, Robert

Notes

The writing responsibilities broke down as follows

  • Madame F.A., Forbes (of the Sacred Heart Training College): Group I and Group II
  • F.C. Mears: Group III
  • Lady Margaret Sackville: Group V, Group X and Group XI
  • D. Crichton: Group VI
  • Miss M. Winstanley Brown: Group VII
  • Mr Andrew McIndoe: Group IX
  • Mrs Finlayson Gauld: Group XIII6
  • Burns, Robert: Group IV ('Scots Wha Hae')7

Notable among the authors is the poet, children's writer and essayist, Lady Margaret Sackville.8

Names of composers

  • Winstanley Brown, Miss M.

Those responsible for musical arrangement or composition are not specified in the pageant programme with the single exception of Miss Winstanley Brown for Group VII for which she was also author and producer.9 She was noted in the programme as being responsible for music but her designation as composer or arranger is not specified.

Numbers of performers

500

Financial information

Surplus Profit: £220

Object of any funds raised

Although advertisements for the pageant state it was held in aid of the Outlook Tower, the surplus was in fact given to 'children's charities'.10 At the time, the Outlook Tower Association had a particular interest in the use of open spaces, and it may therefore have been used to assist with the development of these for children by turning derelict grounds 'in congested areas' of the city into play parks.11

The Outlook Tower was a museum and educational facility in Edinburgh founded by Sir Patrick Geddes in 1892. He had struggled to finance it, and this had resulted in the founding of an association that raised funds to maintain and promote its work.12

Linked occasion

Six-hundredth anniversary of the granting of Edinburgh's charter by Robert the Bruce.

Audience information

  • Grandstand: Not Known
  • Grandstand capacity: n/a
  • Total audience: 6000

Notes

The Usher Hall is a large concert venue in the centre of Edinburgh; in 2015, it has a seating capacity of 2200.13 At the time of the pageant, a letter to the Scotsman newspaper indicated that 2400 seats were available. Average attendance at each of the three nights was estimated to be over 2000, large numbers of which were children.14

Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest

5s.–6d.

5s.; 2s. 6d.; and 1s. Children were admitted at half-price.15

The majority of seats were priced at 1s. (children 6d.). The Outlook Tower Association estimated that on average at each performance 1000 adults paid 1s. each and 1000 children were admitted for 6d. each; of the remaining 400 more expensive seats, those purchased were often for children who paid half price.16

Associated events

  • Pageant Ball at the 'Palais de Dance' (Wednesday 5 June, 8pm–1.30am). Tickets were 2s. 6d. for 'members of the masque' and 5s. for others. This cost included refreshments.

Pageant outline

Group I. Edinburgh in the Time of Malcolm Canmore and Saint Margaret

Set in the courtyard at the Maiden's Castle, Edinburgh, the episode was concerned with Margaret's role in promoting religious unity. It had a very large cast including King Malcolm, Margaret (his wife), as well as Margaret's mother Agatha, her brother Edgar (heir to the throne of England) and three children Edmund, David and Matilda. There were in addition the following named characters: Bartulph (Chamberlain of Scotland), Turgot (Prior of Durham) and Fothad (Bishop of St Andrews). The remaining cast included thanes, courtiers, embroiderers, metal workers, cloth weavers, Benedictine and Columban monks, acolytes, 'culdees', citizens, beggars, 'countrymen', a poor widow and orphans, and 'an English Prisoner'. In all, 110 players made up of men, women and children took part and the drama contained dialogue. The episode was organised and performed by staff and students of the Sacred Heart Training College in Edinburgh.

Group II. David I as Town Planner: The King in Council to Hear Complaints and Redress Grievances

This episode was set at Edinburgh Castle. Together with David was his wife, Matilda, Fitzalan (Steward of Scotland), Hugo de Morville (Governor of Edinburgh Castle), Robert de Brus (Lord of Annandale) plus unnamed noblemen, merchants, nuns, Benedictine monks, Thanes and citizens as well as attendants on the King and Queen. Altogether around 40 performers were involved and there was dialogue. The scene depicted David planning the layout of the old city, today known as the Royal Mile.

Group III. Wallace Promoting Foreign Trade

A setting for this episode is not specified; it includes Wallace, Andrew de Moray, a Provost, a clerk, two merchants, and a 'Foolish Burgess' and his wife as well as a group of soldiers and a group of 'villagers'. The episode contained dialogue and altogether 30 performers were involved made up of 26 men and 4 women.

Group IV. Edward I and His Policy

This episode appears to have had only a single performer in the role of Edward I (played by Sterling Craig) who delivered a monologue.

Group V. Bruce: Bannockburn and Edinburgh's Charter

Boys from George Watson's College (62 players all together) presented this episode. It was divided into three scenes:

Scene I: The Eve of Bannockburn (1314); this featured King Robert the Bruce (played by A. Ross) and 'Nobles, Spearmen and Shieldbearers'.

Scenes II and III enacted the 'Presentation of the Charter to the Citizens of Edinburgh’ (1329). Characters included the King with sentinels and pages, the city's Provost, Bailie and Dean, and (possibly in the third scene) the 'Douglas Court Physician' and seven pages.

Group VI. James III

This scene featured James III, Queen Margaret, their son James, Princess Margaret of Scotland, the Duke of Albany, the Earl of Mar, Walter Scheves (the King's astrologer), Bishop Elphinstone plus assorted nobility divided into two groups—'King's favourites' and 'disaffected lords'—as well as ladies in waiting, guards and a jester. 27 players took part.

Group VII. The Blue Blanket: the Presenting of the Blue Blanket to the Trades

James III, his wife Queen Margaret, his sister Princess Margaret, a 'hammerman' plus courtiers, dancers, ladies in waiting. Children from 'the Hospital founded by Dame Mary Erskine and the Incorporated Crafts of Edinburgh' performed a further dance. 24 performers plus an unspecified number of child dancers were involved.

Group VIII. Marriage of James IV and Margaret Tudor, August 1503

This scene was set in the Hall at Dalkeith Palalce. It included three groups of performers: 'Ladies at Dalkeith Palace', the 'English Court', and the 'Scottish Court'. There were 30 players plus a piper and a choir. In this light-hearted scene, Margaret took exception to James's beard and he was forced to remove it. The stagecraft involved saw James disappear behind the skirts of the ladies and later emerge clean-shaven.

Group IX. Flodden

This scene was set in the Council Chambers, Edinburgh. It included the Deputy Provost, a Halberdier, a group of councillors and their wives, and Randolph Murray. 15 players took part. In this scene, Murray delivered the news to Edinburgh's council that the battle had been lost and the King killed.

Group X. Mary Queen of Scots

Together with Mary were the following characters: Mary Hamilton, Mary Carmichael, Mary Seton, Mary Beaton, Lord Darnley, the Earl of Bothwell, Rizzio, John Knox, the Countess of Cassillis (described as the Queen's favourite), 'M. d'Elbeuf' (the Marquis de Elbeuf, played by the writer Lewis Spence), 'Nicole La Folle', and an unspecified number of ladies in waiting and burgesses.18

Group XI. The Covenanters

Named characters included: 'Henderson of Leuchars', Lord Loudon, Earl of Rothes, Johnston of Warriston [sic], the Duke of Sutherland and two 'Precentors'. In addition, there was a large crowd of lords and ladies and ordinary citizens played by the Royal Edinburgh Choral Union.

Group XII. Prince Charlie

This episode was played by the Cameron Highlanders; no further details were supplied.

Group XIII. Burns and Scott, 1786

There appear to have been two scenes in this episode. The first enacted a meeting between Burns and Scott and was set in the Lawnmarket, Edinburgh. Together with the two writers were: Scott's father, Lord Monboddo, the Duchess of Gordon, the Countess of Glencairn and Dr Blacklock, plus eight further players. The second scene was a tableau of Scott surrounded by some of his most famous characters from his literary creations: Ivanhoe (featuring Ivanhoe, Lady Rowena, Rebecca and Issac of York [sic]); Rob Roy (Rob Roy, Helen Macgregor, Dougal and Bailie Nicol Jarvie); The Heart of Midlothian (Jeanie Deans, the Laird o' Dumbiedykes and Madge Wildfire); The Lady of the Lake (Helen Douglas, Fitz James and Roderick Dhu), and Kenilworth (Queen Elizabeth, Amy Robsart, the Earl of Leicester and Varney). Two further characters appeared: Dominie Sampson and Old Mortality.

Key historical figures mentioned

  • Malcolm III [Mael Coluim Ceann Mór, Malcolm Canmore] (d. 1093) king of Scots
  • Margaret [St Margaret] (d. 1093) queen of Scots, consort of Malcolm III
  • David I (c.1085–1153) king of Scots
  • Matilda [Edith, Mold, Matilda of Scotland] (1080–1118) queen of England, first consort of Henry I
  • Turgot (c.1050–1115) author and bishop of St Andrews
  • Maud [Matilda] (d. 1131), found in David I (c.1085–1153)king of Scots
  • Brus [Bruce], Robert (I) de, lord of Annandale (d. 1142) baron and soldier
  • Wallace, Sir William (d. 1305), patriot and guardian of Scotland
  • Murray, Andrew (d. 1297) patriot and soldier [also known as Moray, Andrew]
  • Edward I (1239–1307) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
  • Robert I [Robert Bruce] (1274–1329) king of Scots
  • James III (1452–1488) king of Scots
  • Margaret [Margaret of Denmark] (1456/7?–1486) queen of Scots, consort of James III
  • James IV (1473–1513) king of Scots
  • Margaret [Margaret Tudor] (1489–1541) queen of Scots, consort of James IV
  • Mary [Mary Stewart] (1542–1587), queen of Scots
  • Mary Seton (b. c.1541, d. after 1615) Queen's Maries (act. 1548–1567)
  • Mary Beaton (c.1543–1597) Queen's Maries (act. 1548–1567)
  • Stewart, Henry, duke of Albany [known as Lord Darnley] (1545/6–1567) second consort of Mary, queen of Scots
  • Hepburn, James, fourth earl of Bothwell and duke of Orkney (1534/5–1578) magnate and third consort of Mary, queen of Scots James, 4th Earl of Bothwell
  • Riccio, David (c.1533–1566) musician and courtier
  • Knox, John (c.1514–1572) religious reformer
  • Henderson, Alexander (c.1583–1646) Church of Scotland minister and politician
  • Leslie, John, sixth earl of Rothes (c.1600–1641) politician
  • Johnston, Sir Archibald, Lord Wariston (bap. 1611, d. 1663) lawyer and politician
  • Gordon, John, fourteenth earl of Sutherland (1609–1679) nobleman
  • Scott, Sir Walter (1771–1832) poet and novelist
  • Burns, Robert (1759–1796) poet
  • Burnett, James, Lord Monboddo (bap. 1714, d. 1799) judge and philosopher
  • Gordon [née Maxwell], Jane, duchess of Gordon (1748/9–1812) political hostess and agricultural reformer
  • Blacklock, Thomas (1721–1791) poet and writer

Musical production

Live music provided by: six choirs, two bands, an orchestra and the Usher Hall organ.
The choir of St Mary's Roman Catholic cathedral, Edinburgh, performed in Group I. Pieces included:
  • Winstanley Brown, Miss M. (Group VII). 
  • Traditional tune, 'Scots Wha Hae' (Group IV).

Newspaper coverage of pageant

The Scotsman
The Dundee Courier

Book of words

n/a

A Book of Words was not produced.

Other primary published materials

  • Bruce Sex-Centenary Pageant, A Masque of Edinburgh: Living and Speaking History in Thirteen Scenes, Usher Hall 28th–30th May 1929 at 7.30 pm. Programme. No publication details.

References in secondary literature

n/a

Archival holdings connected to pageant

  • The National Library of Scotland: One copy of the programme. HP3.78.919.

Sources used in preparation of pageant

n/a

Summary

When plans were discussed by Edinburgh's city council for celebration of the six-hundredth anniversary of the granting of Edinburgh's royal charter, there was every intention to make sure that a lasting and fitting memorial would unfold. To this end, on the actual day of the anniversary, children were to be given a day off school, a church service at St Giles was to be held, a commemorative 'booklet' detailing the history of the city would be issued, and, capping all, a long-awaited memorial to Wallace and Bruce at Edinburgh Castle was to be unveiled. As to anything slightly more frivolous—such as a pageant—when this was suggested at a council meeting, Edinburgh Corporation declined this option.21 Although Edinburgh was not new to pageantry—the city had staged a huge event at Craigmillar in 1927—councillors were doubtless mindful of the public purse in initially turning down the opportunity to have another. The damning epithet often associated with the city, 'you'll have had your tea', may well apply in this context.

Nevertheless, acting outside of municipal plans, the idea was taken up by the Outlook Tower Association—a collective that included much of Edinburgh's cultural elite who were inspired by the teachings of Patrick Geddes—which decided to rise to this challenge. In the hands of this group, many at the time may have anticipated a show that was highbrow and lacked the popular touch. Perhaps in response to the Outlook Tower's initiative, the education department of Edinburgh Corporation later relented and decided to present a pageant of sorts, featuring Edinburgh schoolchildren in Princes Street Gardens. This was to consist of various tableaux depicting aspects of the city's history, accompanied by the singing of a massed choir of children from the city's schools, and would be free to view by all.22 Doubtless Edinburgh teachers were expected to organise these tableaux and the young actors were expected to take part without any extra recompense. Unfortunately, no details of this particular outdoor event have been found, and it does seem to have been overshadowed by the larger pageant that was independently organised.

In advancing the idea of a full-scale theatrical event, The Outlook Tower Association, of course, had its own agenda—to raise funds for the advancement of Geddes's edifying ideas. Given the social influence of this group, it was decided to hold the pageant, or masque, as they preferred to call it, in the city's Usher Hall. This was a high profile venue and capable of holding large audiences. By all accounts, the educational merits of this pageant do seem to have attracted spectators to bring along children, and at least half of the tickets sold were for discounted child seats. This had an impact on the financial success of the pageant, although it was well attended on the three nights that it was performed.23 Perhaps against expectations and because of the youthful audience, it proved to have a good deal of popular appeal.

Evidently, the Outlook Tower folk were not superstitious, and thirteen episodes were completed which concentrated on the development of the city of Edinburgh and its civic identity while also incorporating many nationally important historical figures. Unfortunately, there is a frustrating lack of detail available describing the drama of the episodes: the programme gives only brief summaries. However, it is clear that this pageant aimed to tap into local and national patriotism. Beginning in the eleventh century, the opening episode, which was set at Edinburgh Castle, aimed to show that Edinburgh had existed as a place of merit long before it was granted its charter or even developed as a place of substantial habitation. Few details of the drama have been recovered, but it had a large cast and showed the Scottish royal court of the time as a colourful spectacle. The narrative was broadly concerned with the role of Queen Margaret as a promoter of religious harmony, and it is notable that it was organised and performed by Roman Catholic institutions in the city. Group II was again set at the Castle and continued the theme of the development of Edinburgh, showing the monarch David I planning the layout of the medieval city. 'Some good spirit and good Scots speech' featured in Group III.24 This dramatised the development of overseas trade, which caused the city to grow. Wallace was depicted as a warrior figure who was nevertheless a man of the people, a notion that had grown in popularity by the early twentieth century.25 The actor who played Wallace was said to have been over six feet tall and looked extremely impressive dressed in chainmail.26

Group IV appears to have been a monologue by a single performer in the guise of the arch-villain (in Scotland at least!) of Edward I, while Group V created narrative equilibrium by featuring his famous foe, Robert the Bruce. It is a great pity that the content of the Edward I episode is so opaque. It is also notable that in the review of the masque published in the Scotsman, comment on this episode was lacking.27 This may have been because the scene was relatively short rather than in any way contentious. Yet given popular views about this English monarch in Scotland, it is impossible to exclude this possibility. The Bruce episode had three scenes. The first of these was a recreation of Bruce's rousing speech to his army before Bannockburn. The remaining two scenes dramatised the central point of the pageant—the granting of the charter. Of course, pageantry was very often undertaken because of charter anniversaries, yet it is difficult to make such scenes exciting. The scene of Bruce before Bannockburn was probably included as an antidote to the relative dreariness of what was to come and likely for no other reason than a fondness held by many Scots for hearing its stirring sentiments!

The episodes then proceeded with a cavalcade of Scottish monarchs and their interactions with the capital city. Scenes VI and VII showed James III and his dealings with the rising commercial interests of the city; according to the Scotsman newspaper, these were lively and well performed, and James's consultation with an astrologer in Group VI was said to have 'dramatic qualities'.28 The legend of the presentation of the famous 'Blue Blanket', the banner of the Edinburgh trade guilds, by King James followed in Group VII. The next king along was the unfortunate James IV, the scene depicting his first meeting with his future wife, Margaret Tudor. This scene was organised by the formidable force of the Edinburgh Women’s Citizens' Association. It was played for humour, yet underneath was the clear implication that English-born Margaret was a civilising influence. Randolph Murray relayed news to the city's council of the tragic end of James IV at Flodden in Group VIII. Depictions of Flodden in Scottish pageants were usually tearjerkers involving weeping women, and general devastation; this appears to have been a more sober approach to the subject.

The pageant next featured Mary Queen of Scots in frivolous mode. The Queen was shown with her court engaged in watching a 'playlet'; this 'pretty little scene' was disturbed by the arrival of John Knox.29 Sadly, no details of what ensued have been found, but it is likely the bright and happy scene ended slightly more darkly. This episode featured its author in the title role; at the time, Lady Margaret Sackville was a well-known woman of letters, and her extensive involvement with the pageant, which was mentioned in all newspaper notices, undoubtedly gave the event more prestige.30 In addition, the contemporary holder of the title played the part of Mary's friend, the Countess of Cassillis.31 The drama then moved to another staple of Scottish pageants, the Covenanters, and featured locally well-known figures in this movement. Few details of the narrative have come to light, but the city's choral union was involved, so it may have been centred more on music and singing than dialogue, which suggests a religious service of some sort. Soldiers from the Cameron Highlanders played in Group XII; this featured Charles Edward Stuart, and it must be supposed that this scene was more about military display and music than any particular narrative.

The final scene turned attention to Edinburgh's literary heritage and its cultural importance during the Enlightenment. This part of the pageant was designed as spectacle and presented in two parts. Absent from this pageant was any depiction of a fair or traditional festival, which is an unusual omission. However, the first part of Group XIII consisted of a street scene in the old city during the eighteenth century; this featured the poet Robert Burns, the writer Sir Walter Scott as a young boy, and what the Scotsman described as a host of 'old Edinburgh worthies'.32 The second part consisted of the adult Walter Scott in a tableau featuring many of his most famous and easily recognisable literary creations. Local colour was added with cries of 'gardeyloo' at the end of the scene, following which all the performers on stage ducked their heads in unison.33

Despite being held in a concert hall then associated with prestigious entertainments, and despite the intellectual bent of the Outlook Tower Association, this pageant seems to have been something of a crowd-pleaser, enacting a popular version of the city's past. If a serious and cerebral interpretation of Edinburgh's past was expected, this was not what was delivered. The many local organisations and institutions that took part appear to have let their hair down and put on a colourful and accessible journey through the past that lived up to the title of a 'living and speaking' history. Apparently, clapping and stomping by the audience went on throughout the first night's show, and the choir's rendition of 'Scots Wha' Hae' was all but drowned out by the audience's enthusiasm! The Scotsman's report took on a typically pompous attitude, stating that while the audience was clearly appreciative its zeal was 'misguided'.34 Given that at least half the spectators were children and theatre etiquette does not seem to have troubled them, we can only conclude that a combination of a day off school and the rousing Scottish patriotism on display encouraged them to enjoy their theatrical history lesson. The success of the venture brought in a small but respectable profit and encouraged the Outlook Tower Association to restage the pageant in a single performance the following summer. Although it was held in Scotland's capital city and in a nationally prized venue, it does not seem to have attracted a great deal of press attention. The city council's more sedate celebrations, which were attended by the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George and Queen Elizabeth), appear to have stolen the limelight—the royal couple did not come along to the pageant, although they were resident at the time at Holyrood. The Masque of Edinburgh is, therefore, a good example of a historical pageant that had great contemporary success but was subsequently largely lost to history.

Footnotes

  1. ^ See Helen Mellor, Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner (London, 1990).
  2. ^ Advertisement, Scotsman, 20 June 1930, 1.
  3. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Tableaux of History', Scotsman, 21 June 1930, 18.
  4. ^ 'Edinburgh That Might Have Been', Dundee Courier, 25 April 1929, 6.
  5. ^ Advertisement, Scotsman, 18 May 1929, 1.
  6. ^ Bruce Sex-Centenary Pageant, A Masque of Edinburgh: Living and Speaking History in Thirteen Scenes, Usher Hall 28th–30th May 1929 at 7.30 pm (no publication details), 3.
  7. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Story of the Capital, Scotsman, 29 May 1929, 14.
  8. ^ See Harriet Blodgett, ‘Sackville, Lady Margaret (1881–1963)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004), online edn., May 2015.
  9. ^ Bruce Sex-Centenary Pageant, A Masque of Edinburgh: Living and Speaking History in Thirteen Scenes, Usher Hall 28th–30th May 1929 at 7.30 pm (no publication details), 3.
  10. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh', Scotsman, 2 June 1930, 7.
  11. ^ 'Outlook Tower Open Spaces Committee', Scotsman, 15 June 1929, 17.
  12. ^ Helen Mellor, Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner (London, 1990), 98.
  13. ^ ‘Usher Hall’, accessed 12 December 2015, http://eventsedinburgh.org.uk/planners_venue_listing.html&venue_id=666.
  14. ^ Letter from Jean C. Cunninghame, Secretary of the Outlook Tower Association, Scotsman, 12 June 1929, 12.
  15. ^ Advertisement, Scotsman, 18 May 1929, 1.
  16. ^ Letter from Jean C. Cunninghame, Secretary of the Outlook Tower Association, Scotsman, 12 June 1929, 12.
  17. ^ Bruce Sex-Centenary Pageant, A Masque of Edinburgh: Living and Speaking History in Thirteen Scenes, Usher Hall 28th–30th May 1929 at 7.30 pm (no publication details), 16.
  18. ^ The characters of Mary Hamilton, Mary Carmichael, Mary Seton and Mary Beaton are well known as the queen's 'four Maries'; however, although the queen did indeed have four attendants named Mary, the two named here, as Hamilton and Carmichael are fictions. This error was widespread and probably circulated because of a popular eighteenth century ballad called 'Marie Hamilton'. The real four were named Fleming, Livingston, Beaton and Seaton; see Rosalind K. Marshall, ‘Queen's Maries (act. 1548-1567)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [accessed : http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/70082].
  19. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: a Colourful Pageant', Scotsman 28 May 1929, 9.
  20. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Story of the Capital, Scotsman 29 May 1929, 14.
  21. ^ 'Edinburgh Charter Sex-Centenary', Dundee Courier, 7 December 1928, 3.
  22. ^ 'Sex-Centenary: Edinburgh School Arrangements', Scotsman, 10 April 1929, 15.
  23. ^ Letter from Jean C. Cunninghame, Secretary of the Outlook Tower Association, Scotsman, 12 June 1929, 12.
  24. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Story of the Capital’, Scotsman, 29 May 1929, 14.
  25. ^ For discussion of the development of the cult of Wallace, see James. J. Coleman, Remembering the Past in Nineteenth-Century Scotland: Commemoration, Nationality and Memory (Edinburgh, 2014).
  26. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Story of the Capital’, 14.
  27. ^ Ibid.
  28. ^ Ibid.
  29. ^ Ibid.
  30. ^ This pageant did not receive a lot of press attention, though it was briefly noted in articles detailing the council's centenary celebration plans; in such mentions, Lady Sackville's name often appears, and she was often misleadingly credited as being the pageant's sole author.
  31. ^ 'Masque of Edinburgh: Story of the Capital’, 14.
  32. ^ Ibid.
  33. ^ Ibid.
  34. ^ Ibid.