A Lancashire Pageant: Camp Fire Tales
The pageant was undertaken by the North East Lancashire Girl Guides and was specially written for performance at the Gawthorpe Fete. On the cover of the programme it is stated that it was dedicated to the Guides’ County Commissioner, the Hon. Rachel Kay-Shuttleworth. Guides from a number of centres were involved: Blackburn, Burnley, Padiham, Bowland and Clitheroe, Colne, Darwen, and Nelson.
Place: Gawthorpe Hall (Burnley) (Burnley, Lancashire, England)
Number of performances: 4
19–20 June 1925
The pageant was performed in the afternoon and evening of Friday 19 June and then twice during Saturday 20 June (times unknown).
Name of pageant master and other named staff
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Kershaw, K.
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Dean, G
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Kippax, G.
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Gendall, P.
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Walford, R.
- Pageant Director [Pageant Master]: Wood, L.J.
This pageant had six named directors and no seniority is indicated. They were all unmarried women (given the designation of 'Miss') and it is assumed they were Guide leaders. One of the group, Miss L.J. Wood, was Burnley High School Guides' Commissioner.3 She was also a head teacher at a local school and responsible for the pageant script.
Names of executive committee or equivalent
Names for a specific pageant committee have not been recovered. A newspaper article states that each of the districts of Lancashire involved had their own committee overseeing individual contributions to the fete and that there was an overseeing executive committee. It may be assumed that the committees were made up of leaders from the various groups of Guides involved, and there may have been sub-committees specifically in charge of the pageant.4 A 50-page handbook of the fete was produced but a copy has not been recovered; this likely contained the names of all involved.5 The executive overseeing all the individual fete committees contained the following members:
- The Hon. Rachael Kay-Shuttleworth, County Commissioner
- The Hon. C. Brooks, Assistant County Commissioner
- Miss Schofield Clegg, County Secretary
- Miss E. Carr, Badge Secretary
- Miss R.T. Whitehead, Fete Treasurer
- Miss Ruth Nelson, District Commissioner for Burnley North
- Miss Helen Stansfield, District Commissioner for Burnley South6
Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)
- Wood, L.J.
- Tennyson, Alfred Lord
- Ainsworth, William Harrison
- Miss L.J. Wood wrote the pageant script; she was the head teacher of the Burnley High School for Girls.7
- Part of the Tennyson poem, 'The Battle of Brunanburh', is recited in episode I. The story of this battle was originally recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; Tennyson’s poem was first published in Ballads and Other Poems in 1880.
- Ainsworth's novel, The Lancashire Witches: A Romance of Pendle Forrest, is the inspiration for the storyline. This relationship is clearest in scenes II and IV; but the novel, with its supernatural elements, influenced most of the pageant's narrative in some way with the possible exception of the final scene.8
Names of composers
Numbers of performers250
It is difficult to know how many Guides took part in this pageant. The number of key players in each scene was relatively small, but there were almost certainly large numbers of performers in non-speaking roles. Given that seven troops took part, anything between 200 and 300 is a reasonable estimate.
Funds raised by fete and pageant: £1722. 7s. 11d.9
Object of any funds raised
North East Lancashire Girl Guides' fund.
The fete and pageant aimed to raise the sum of £2000 as a development fund to pay for facilities for the Guides in the region.10
Linked occasionThe pageant was held as part of a large scale fete that took place over two days.
- Grandstand: Not Known
- Grandstand capacity: n/a
- Total audience: n/a
Firm evidence has not been recovered in respect of a grandstand; but even if one was installed, it is highly likely that most spectators would not have had access to it. Given the sum made from the fete and pageant, a very large number of people attended, but reports do not give any estimate of the size of the audience.
Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest
Although many notices of the fete and pageant were placed in the local press, they do not include precise details of the admission price, seating arrangements and times of the performances. Instead, this information was distributed via handbills. Presumably, the huge amount of detail required to state what the fete offered would have necessitated a large and costly advertisement.11
Associated eventsThe Gawthorpe Fete
Three witches are round a fire; they are named as 'Witch Past, Witch Future and Witch Present'. The scene begins with all three chanting in chorus:
Double, double toil, and trouble,
Fire burn and cauldron bubble.
Then each witch makes a statement in rhyme between each of which the chorus is repeated. Witch Past says she can see into 'the far off times', Witch Future claims to be able to foresee what is to come though it be 'exorcised by book and bell', and Witch Present proclaims 'in me the past and future meet'. This pattern of narration continues for another round with Witch Present stating at the end:
By Gawthorpe Tower we pitch out tent,
Romance and legend here are blent.
A thousand years we back recall
Beneath the shadow of the hall.
Then there is a final chant of the chorus.12
Scene I. Saxon Camp near the Wyre, 10th Century AD
The dialogue in this episode is delivered in prose until the appearance of the witches who once again speak in verse. A group of Saxons crouch over a fire. One wheels in a barrow of peat. A character called Gunewuld remarks that the peat from Pilling Moss is good and will keep the fire going until news comes. Another character called Wulfstan agrees. The two continue conversing, and it is revealed that these Saxons are camping out in hiding from the invading Danes who have set fire to homesteads all around. A character called Cedric states that he has seen 'their dragon ships'. Wulfstan remarks that the Danes' journey is made easier by 'that great road built by the giants many hundred years agone' [the Dane's Pad]. A character called Gurth then arrives, bringing news that the Danes are on their way and telling them to damp down the fire. All fall to their knees and pray just as the Danes arrive. The Saxons then make their escape. The witches, who mention the Saxon king, Athelstan, and the Danish chief, Anlaf, then remark upon this scene and proceed to elaborate on the different people who have lived in the area: Celts, Romans and then Saxons. Witch Present continues the interlude by stating: ''Tis but a strife of kinsfolk here,/Methinks they've little cause for fear.' However, Witch Present contradicts this and says a great battle is coming. A recitation of some stanzas from Tennyson's 'The Battle of Brunanburh' then takes place; following this, Witch Future proclaims that Danish treasure will be found a thousand years after this and that peace will reign when Danish 'blood shall mingle with the Saxon race', adding that 'the Norman Knights shall next appear...' The scene ends with a short introduction to the next episode when 'five hundred years have past us flown'.
Scene II. Watchfires on Pendle, 1536 AD
This scene is set on Pendle Hill and the dialogue is delivered in prose until the appearance of the witches who once again speak in verse. The two main characters are Nicholas Demdike and Abbot Paslew of Whalley. Herdsmen, soldiers and monks (including the abbot) are around a campfire; individuals from each group discuss the surrounding countryside describing various landmarks. The 'village' of Burnley is mentioned and the fact that a great battle once took place there between 'Athelstan King of the Saxons and Anlaf the Danish Chief'. A monk points out the tower of the church said to have been 'built but four years ago by faithful sons of the Church—Nicholas Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe and the three Townley brothers'. Another monk then points out the locations of the Gawthorpe and Townley lands and expresses the hope that both families will assist them in their 'Pilgrimage of Grace'. The abbot then states: ‘Night is approaching and still the signal comes not. The whole North Country from Tweed to Humber, from Lune to Mersey is ours. If we but hold together our cause must prevail. The King's demands must be resisted.’
The monks discuss the fact that the wife of Nicholas Demdike, who the abbot has condemned as a witch, has prophesied the downfall of the abbey and the death of the abbot. Nicholas Demdike then appears on the scene and tells them that the Pilgrimage has ended and the insurgents have accepted the king's pardon but that this is not extended to the monks of Whalley. The Witches then conclude the scene with Witch Future proclaiming:
The Church beneath the Tudor sway
From Papal yoke shall draw away.
The great Armada sent by Spain
Will strive to bring it back again.
Scene III. On the Coast near Rossall, 1588 AD
This episode consists of a conversation between several young men: Fleetwood of Rossall, Young Townley, Thomas Shuttleworth and his friend, 'Edward Spencer', who is in Lancashire on holiday. They discuss the impending arrival of the Armada, and it is revealed that Fleetwood and Townley welcome this and the return of the old religion; but Spencer says: 'I am no Papist. When I return to London I shall fight for Queen Bess and the Reformed Faith, and write poetry in her honour too.' At this, a messenger arrives at the camp stating that the Armada has been defeated, and then all spot a tattered Spanish ship making its way from the coast. The messenger addresses Fleetwood and tells him that the Spanish ship was driven by a storm on the shore and 'drew off firing a salvo that stuck thy home at Rossall'. Spenser declares that this is what his master at St Paul's might call 'Dramatic Irony' and calls out 'Long Live Queen Bess!' Witch Future then addresses Shuttleworth in verse saying:
Thy stately home will one day be
A school for sons of Britons, free...
Of this fair land will rise the homes
That shelter any faith that comes.
Witch Past then introduces the next episode.
Scene IV. Revels at Whalley, 1605 AD
The following members of the gentry enter:
Ralph Assheton of Whalley
Nicholas Assheton of Dowham
Young Richard Assheton, of Middleton
Dorothy Assheton, his sister
Dame Alice Nutter
Alison Devize as the 'Rose Queen' then appears with her attendants. The conversation that takes place is in prose. Dame Nutter asks if Alison is the granddaughter of the Pendle witch, Mother Demdike; Nicholas replies that she is. Dame Nutter remarks that it is strange she has never met her before. Nicholas explains that, in his opinion, Dame Nutter's husband died because of Demdike’s witchcraft, but the Dame says this is untrue—her husband died from 'hard riding after hard drinking'. Nicholas then says that another witch, Mother Chattox, certainly killed his own brother with sorcery. The Dame says that if this was the case, then Chattox did him a favour since he then inherited 'the fair estates of Downham', and she accuses Nicholas of superstition. He replies that the area is full of witches and he would have them put to the stake. Maypole and folk dancing then takes place. Following this, Mother Chattox appears accompanied by her granddaughter, 'pretty Nan Redferne'. Nicholas tells the old woman that this is 'a place of merry-making and not a devil's sabbath' and insists that she leave immediately. A furious exchange between Mother Chattox and Nicholas then takes place during which the old woman denies being responsible for any deaths and insists that she be taken 'to the crosses'. Richard Assheton intervenes in this, and the old woman curses all the Assheton family, though others tell her that Richard is kind. Nicholas declares that the crosses are not Christian but old 'Runic obelisks' on which are written charms; he claims that one of these gives any who can read it the power of invisibility. Chatton proceeds to curse Nicholas and then disappears. Richard pronounces that perhaps she is indeed a witch. Nicholas then turns on Nan and accuses her of witchcraft, but others say this is not so. Richard again intervenes, this time to help Nan. Sir Ralph also demands her release; he further states that all this discord must stop and the merry-making recommence. The witches Past, Present and Future again speak in verse to say that terror of witchcraft will disappear but 'a strife between kinsfolk shall shortly ensue'. Witch Past says she is 'for King Charles', while Witch Present is 'for the Parliament'; both point to Witch Future who states she is for both. The three end by introducing the next episode.
Scene V. In the Woods near Padiham, 1840
Some children are seen in the woods; they are tired as they have been at school (in the afternoons) and at work in the mill (in the mornings) all through the week, but now it is Saturday and so they decide to build a camp fire. One child suggests they fetch Granny Hargreaves to tell tales of the olden days to them. Granny then appears in the company of Meary O'Dick [sic]. The children say that the boys have gone off bird-nesting, and they ask to hear Granny's stories of when she was as a child. The old woman addresses them in dialect:
Naw! it were hard, but noan as bad as that i eaur family, cos mu feyther had a reet nice little cottage up i Pendle Forest, wi a pair o' hand-looms—there were noan so monny factories with power looms i them days and reet hard factory maisters—but aw were jus' sayin' we did us own weyvin, in us own house and then atth'end o't week mu feyther carried t'pieces on is back to Colne to geet is brass fer doin' 'em.
The conversation between the children and Granny continues, and a child says that her father claims that cloth was sent by canal to Liverpool; she asks Granny where Liverpool is, and the old woman replies she must mean 'Chester Poort'. Another child asks why 'they build mills and make us live in stuffy little houses and work so hard?' Granny replies that the masters 'are after addlin' as much brass as they can lay their hands on' but that she should ask her teacher who will be able to explain this better. The teacher then appears on the scene and explains:
Because Kay, of Bury invented a quick shuttle for weavers, and Hargreaves, of Blackburn made a spinning jenny to do the spinning quicker than could be done by the wheel, and Crompton, of Bolton, made a mule for quicker spinning, and Cartwright (not a Lancashire man he) invented the power loom so that ever so many looms could be driven by steam. That killed the hand weaving and work at home. They built the big mills by streams and the folk had to live near them.
The teacher goes on to explain that she was taught to read at home and, when her father died, she was asked to teach in the school. It is revealed that Granny 'cannot read her bible' nor write her name. Granny tells a story about a terrible time when 'Holgates bank bust' and children starved. The teacher then tells the children about a trip she recently made to Manchester and how she travelled there by coach but got to see the new trains that run all the way to Liverpool in less than two hours. Granny pours scorn on the trains and states they will never come to their place for it is too hilly. The teacher tells the children to get home before dark and leads them away. They leave singing and dancing. The song is led by Witch Future and ends with the verse:
In days yet distant, schools shall rise
Where children, happy, good and wise,
Shall laugh and sing and leap and run,
And learn that work and play are one.
The Pageant in Reverse Order Passes along the Danes Pad
There is no description for this in the pageant book of words, but it is assumed that the players, in reverse order of appearance, processed along the part of the arena which had been used as the 'Dane's Pad' in previous scenes.
Key historical figures mentioned
- Æthelstan [Athelstan] (893/4–939) king of England
- Paslew, John (d. 1537) abbot of Whalley
- Spenser, Edmund (1552?–1599) poet and administrator in Ireland
- Assheton, Nicholas (1590–1625) landowner
- Elizabeth Sowthernes [alias Demdike; known as Old Demdike] (c.1532–1612)
- Alizon Device (d. 1612)
- Anne Redfearn (d. 1612).
- Anne Whittle [alias Chattox] (c.1532–1612)
- Alice Nutter (d. 1612) of Pendle
- Kay, John (1704–1780/81) inventor of textile manufacturing machinery
- Hargreaves, James (bap. 1721, d. 1778) inventor of the spinning jenny
- Crompton, Samuel (1753–1827) inventor of the spinning mule
- Cartwright, Edmund (1743–1823) Church of England clergyman and inventor of a power loom
Musical productionNo details of the music used have been recovered. However, it is clear that there was live music as some scenes included song and dance.
Newspaper coverage of pageantBurnley News
The Yorkshire Post
Book of words
- A Lancashire Pageant: Campfire Tales (Specially Written for the Gawthope Fete and Dedicated to the County Commissioner, the Hon. Rachael Kay-Shuttleworth). Burnley, 1925.
Other primary published materials
A 50-page handbook of the fete was produced, but this has not been recovered.13
References in secondary literature
No secondary references noted.
Archival holdings connected to pageant
- Lancashire County Record Office: one copy of the book of words. DDX 519/124.
Sources used in preparation of pageant
- Ainsworth, William Harrison. The Lancashire Witches: A Romance of Pendle Forrest. London, 1849.
- Tennyson, Alfred. 'The Battle of Brunanburh', Ballads and Other Poems. London, 1880.
Ainsworth's bestselling novel was originally serialised in the Times in 1848. It was published in book form in three volumes the following year. There have been many subsequent reprints.
This pageant was part of an event which m aimed to raise a sum of money that in 1925 must have been an ambitious amount—£2000. Huge effort therefore went into making the fete, held over two days, a success. To help elevate its profile some very well-known individuals were involved. On the first day of the Gawthorpe fete, for example, the Marchioness of Aberdeen opened the event. At this time, and for decades previously, she was probably the most celebrated female aristocrat of the age—a woman with an international profile who was rarely out of the news and whose worldwide travels as President of the International Council of Women were devoured in the popular press.14 Her presence at a fundraising bazaar in the north of England must have been a very significant draw, and she was introduced by Lord Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe. On day two of the fete, the opening dignitary, appropriately, was Lady Baden-Powell. As Chief Guide, she too was a globetrotter and world famous, but in this role she did not discriminate, and trips to Girl Guide events in the provinces were her stock-in-trade: she could certainly bring in the crowds. At the close of the fete no less than 5000 Guides and Scouts performed a marchpast in her honour. Such numbers give some idea of the scale of this fundraiser, which on the surface of things might otherwise seem to be quite an ordinary charitable occasion. Certainly much of it was homespun and familiar—white elephant stalls, handiwork and craft stalls, marquees selling teas, sideshows and concerts—yet it also had prestige and glamour. It was held in the grounds of Gawthorpe Hall, an Elizabethan manor house near Burnley that was the ancestral home of the locally important Shuttleworth family. The County Commissioner for the Guides, the Hon. Rachael Kay-Shuttleworth, was a member of this family; doubtless, she facilitated the use of the grounds for the fete and probably also used her social connections to obtain the attendance of Lady Aberdeen.
The pageant provided an extra enticement to visitors. This was performed four times over the two days of the fete; one of the reasons why none of the local newspapers estimated the size of the audience may have been that some fete-goers saw the open-air performance more than once! The actors involved were all Guides who were members of seven local divisions of the movement as it then existed in this part of Lancashire. Written by a local Guide leader, this pageant is of particular interest: it had a running theme—that of the countryside camp—and in narrative terms was a blend of fiction and history. The fictional element arose from the fact that much of the storyline took its inspiration from a hugely popular nineteenth-century novel by the prolific author William Harrison Ainsworth whose work, The Lancashire Witches (1848) had been set in this part of the county.15 This novel features fictionalised versions of characters from both the Shuttleworth family and the Townley family (another local gentry clan). The tale centres on the fortunes of these families and embellishes their relationship with the infamous Pendle witches. 16
Ainsworth was Lancashire born and set many of his historical novels in the county of his birth; his tale of the Pendle witches was one of his most celebrated novels. Although the popularity of Ainsworth's writing declined sharply in the later nineteenth century, widespread knowledge of his storylines had gradually filtered into popular consciousness and, in turn, affected commonly held interpretations of the past, much in the way that Walter Scott's romantic versions of history had affected retellings of the Scottish past. It is certain that Ainsworth’s fiction played a role in depictions of the past in many Lancashire pageants.17 In the Gawthorpe pageant, this debt to Ainsworth is openly acknowledged. The other particular aspect of the Gawthorpe pageant—the running theme of the outdoor camp—provided a neat correlation between the drama and its fundraising aim. This trope was employed because the money raised through this event was intended to be used to buy a site that could provide a headquarters and be used as a regular campsite for local Guides. The supernatural aspects of Ainsworth's novel about the Pendle witches are first seen in the prologue where three allegorical characters—the Witches Past, Present and Future—appear, with more than a nod to Shakespeare's Macbeth, around an open fire. They introduce the drama and go on to provide a connecting thread for the subsequent episodes by appearing at the end of each.
The spoken narrative provided by the witches was delivered in simple verse and, in the prologue, mentions the medieval tower at Gawthorpe, which was for centuries used as a lookout point to spot invaders, most notably the Scots from the north. However, the Scots do not feature as enemies in this pageant; instead, scene I tells the tale of invasion by the Danes in the tenth century. The invaders are seen arriving along a legendary road purported to have been built by the Romans and still referred to in later centuries as the 'Dane's Pad'. This provides an opportunity to signpost the antiquity of the human settlement in this part of Lancashire. Scene II moves several centuries on and introduces characters who featured in Ainsworth's novel, including the Abbot of Paslew. The historical interest in this scene is the Pilgrimage of Grace and the divided religious loyalties of England at the time. The fictional aspect of the story is most clearly seen in scene III with the character of 'Edward Spencer' on holiday from London and the court of Queen Elizabeth in order to visit his friend, Thomas Shuttleworth. His visit coincides with the vanquishing of the Armada, but throughout this scene, which is set on the Lancashire coast, the local gentry—and the friction caused by their adherence to the old religion—is the subject exposed in the characters' dialogue. Scene IV is set at a fair, and although Maypole dancing does take place, the main feature of the episode is to introduce the historical characters accused of witchcraft and their accusers among the local gentry. The narrative stays true to Ainsworth's novel but marries this with pageant tradition by setting all the dialogue in the context of a traditional fair. An added agenda is to tell how this witch-hunting hysteria would decline in time; Witch Past, at the end of the episode, delivers—without any apparent irony—the information that rationality eventually undermines superstition.
The witches then whizz through the centuries, speaking in verse about the Civil War, the rise of greater democracy and, finally, the industrial age, which is the subject of the final scene. In this, the shift from proto-industrialisation to the factory system, and the fact of child labour, is revealed through the storytelling delivered by the characters of Granny and a local teacher. In this episode, although the hardships caused to working people by industrialisation and the greed of factory owners are mentioned by Granny, the storyline advances the benefits that came from this transformation in terms of greater literacy, the decline in the use of child labour and the great social change brought about by technical innovations in textile manufacturing and in transport—the coming of the railways is especially romanticised. Overall, the tone lauds the notion of progress while underplaying the negative social and cultural consequences of industrialisation, though they are acknowledged. At the end of the pageant, all the players paraded across the arena in reverse order of their appearance. This procession took place on what had formed the ‘Dane’s Pad’ on the outdoor stage. The area of performance was in front of the manor house, and it is presumed that this was quite large and easily visible.
The sun shone on both days of the fete, and the staging and costumes used for the pageant performance were said to have been lavish, including ‘heirlooms’ loaned by the Shuttleworth family, all of which helped the pageant’s success. It is fairly clear that all the action and dialogue had some musical accompaniment, but sadly little in the way of detail for this has survived. Perhaps this is because, more than anything, the pageant depended on spectacle, with the dramatic backdrop of Gawthorpe Hall and the colourful array of performers providing the pageant’s main attractions. The history encompassed in the short episodes was intensely local, both to the Burnley area and the North of England; and, of course, all of it was staged in a historically significant place in relation to the locality. The second day’s performance was filmed by a local cinema and shown in Burnley several times during the following weeks.18 The film included footage of Lady Baden-Powell and the marchpast by the Guides and Scouts. Although the monies made fell short of the intended £2000, a very substantial profit was made. This pageant should be considered as one the earliest large pageants carried out by the Guides and one that set them on the road to producing a long line of successful pageants.
- See front cover of the pageant programme, A Lancashire Pageant: Camp Fire Tales (Burnley, 1925).
- 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- A Lancashire Pageant: Camp Fire Tales (Burnley, 1925), 1.
- 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- See mention of this in 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- 'North East Lancashire Girl Guides Fete and Pageant', Burnley News, 13 June 1925, 12.
- The use of the novel as inspiration is mentioned in a newspaper article, although the specific scenes based on the novel's storyline are not cited; see 'Girl Guides' Pageant, Lancashire Evening Post, 19 June 1925, 8.
- 'Girl Guides Movement', Burnley News, 11 November 1925, 5.
- 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- See, for example, the notice in Burnley Express, 13 June 1925, 2; this mentions the use of handbills.
- Unless stated otherwise, all quotations in the synopses are taken from A Lancashire Pageant: Campfire Tales (Burnley, 1925).
- 'Girl Guides' Pageant', Burnley News, 20 June 1925, 16.
- For further details, see Marjory Harper, 'Aberdeen and Temair, Ishbel Maria Gordon, Marchioness of (Lady Aberdeen)', in The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women, ed. Elizabeth Ewan et al. (Edinburgh, 2006), 3–4.
- For further information about Ainsworth, see the entry by Sheldon Goldfarb, 'Ainsworth, William Harrison (1805–1882), novelist', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition, accessed 24 June 2106, http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/0/101000243/
- For a short summary of the history of this witch trial and those involved, see: Laura Gowing, ‘Pendle Witches (1612)’, Dictionary of National Biography, online edition, accessed 24 June 2016, http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/101067763/Pendle-witches.
- This can certainly be seen in Salford's pageant in 1930 where an episode on Guy Fawkes is entirely based on the novel of the same name by Ainsworth.
- See, for example, the advertisement for the Savoy Cinema, Burnley News, 24 June 1925, 1. In this instance, the pageant film was the second feature, alongside Lily of the Dust starring Raymond Griffiths and Pola Negri.
How to cite this entry
Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Tom Hulme, Alex Hutton, Paul Readman, ‘A Lancashire Pageant: Camp Fire Tales’, The Redress of the Past, http://www.historicalpageants.ac.uk/pageants/1112/