Bristol: Cradle of Empire

Pageant type


Additional information drawn from 'Survey of Historical Pageants' undertaken by Mick Wallis; with thanks to Mrs J. Bradley of Bristol Central Library.

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Place: Ashton Court (Ashton Park, Bristol) (Ashton Park, Bristol, Somerset, England)

Year: 1924

Indoors/outdoors: Outdoors

Number of performances: 22


26 May–21 June 1924

The pageant was also relocated to Wembley Stadium, London.

26 May at 7pm, 27 May at 7pm, 28 May at 7pm, 29 May at 7pm, 30 May at 7pm, 31 May at 3pm, 7 June at 3pm [Performance at Wembley], 9 June at 3pm [Wembley], 10 June at 3pm [Wembley], 11 June at 7pm, 12 June at 7pm, 13 June at 7pm, 14 June at 3pm and 7pm, 15 June at 3pm and 7pm, 16 June at 7pm, 17 June at 7pm, 18 June at 7pm, 19 June at 7pm, 20 June at 7pm, 21 June at 7pm.

A number of these performances were cancelled mid-way through due to rain. The opening weekend’s performances on 24 May at 3pm and 7pm and 25 May at 7pm were cancelled due to heavy rain.

Name of pageant master and other named staff

  • Pageant Master: Lascelles, Frank
  • Deputy Pageant Master: Snowden, Alec
  • Mistress of the Robes: Mrs H. Norton
  • Master of Marshals, Mr H. Norton Matthews
  • Master of Horse, Mr Angus Jones
  • Property Master: Mr Royston Farquhar
  • Artists: Messrs Frank P. Stonelake and A.J. Heaney
  • Musical Director: Mr Hubert W. Hunt
  • Chorus Master: Mr Joseph Jenkins
  • Chief Stewards: Messrs Anthony Scull and Montague Spurrier

Names of executive committee or equivalent

Executive Committee:

  • Chairman: F. Burris (Sheriff of Bristol)
  • Vice Chairman: Sir William Howell Davies
  • Mr Charles Wells
  • Business Manager: Mr W.R. Powell
  • Hon. Secretaries: Mr E.W. Lennard; S. Leo Young
  • E.S. Bromhead
  • W.J. Benwell
  • J.H. Budgett
  • Mrs Ball
  • A.E. Carter
  • A.D. Cox
  • T. Sturge Cotterell
  • H. Carre
  • C.C. Cowlin
  • G.E.S. Fursdon
  • E. Greenland
  • A.E. Stanley Hill
  • Mrs E. Hampton
  • F.C. Jones
  • Edgar Jenkins
  • A.P. Keen
  • T. Loveday
  • F.C. Luke
  • C.F. Latham
  • H. Northon Matthews
  • Mrs A. Nunn
  • S.C. Pope
  • H.E. Rogers
  • E.H. Parker
  • Alderman Sheppard
  • F.E. Sprackling
  • E.W. Savory
  • R.H. Todd
  • H.G. Treasure
  • W.A. Winchester
  • H.W.K. Waite
  • W.R. Wadlow

Historical Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr Charles Wells

Costumes Committee:

  • Chairman: Mrs H. Norton Matthews

Music Committee:

  • Chairman: Mr A. Bruce Bedells

Publicity Committee:

  • Chairman: A.E. Stanley Hill


  • H. Norton Matthews (Episode I)
  • H.J. Wilkins, D.D. (Episode II)
  • C.E. Roberts (Episode III)
  • Frederick C. Jones (Episode IV)
  • Major E.W. Lennard (Episode V)
  • Charles F. Latham, FRGS (Episode VI)
  • F.R. Worts (Episode VII)

Names of script-writer(s) and other credited author(s)

  • Matthews, H. Norton
  • Wilkins, H.J.
  • Roberts, C.E.
  • Jones, Frederick C.
  • Lennard, Major E.W.
  • Latham, Charles F.
  • Worts, F.R.


  • H. Norton Matthews (Episode I)
  • H.J. Wilkins, D.D. (Episode II)
  • C.E. Roberts (Episode III)
  • Frederick C. Jones (Episode IV)
  • Major E.W. Lennard (Episode V)
  • Charles F. Latham, FRGS (Episode VI)
  • F.R. Worts (Episode VII)

Names of composers

  • Miles, P. Napier
  • Minot, Laurence
  • Purcell, Henry
  • Benet, John
  • Byrd, William
  • Davies, Sir John
  • Weelkes, Thomas
  • Bevin, Elway
  • Roeckel, Joseph
  • Savile, Jeremy
  • Hunt, Hubert

Numbers of performers


Financial information

Total costs were £16300.

Receipts at Bristol were around £3000, with around £200 taken at Wembley (for which performances there had been ‘an estimate of at least £20000’ in takings).1 Therefore, there was a shortfall of around £13000, which exceeded the guarantees by £3000.

Object of any funds raised


Linked occasion


Audience information

  • Grandstand: Yes
  • Grandstand capacity: 10000
  • Total audience: Approx. 110000


Around 100000 visited the pageant at Bristol and 10000 in London.2

Prices of admission and seats: highest–lowest

10s. 6d.–1s.

Admission 1s.

Reserved seats:10s. 6d.; 7s. 6d.; 5s.; and 3s.

Associated events


Pageant outline

Episode I: Re-Signing of Magna Charta, AD 1216

Henry III was in Bristol and is obliged to re-sign the Magna Carta in the presence of earls, barons, Templars, priests, soldiers and common people, confirming its provisions. This ceremony, taking place under a gay canopy, will form the first episode of the pageant, though Bristol’s unwritten history goes back hundreds of years earlier.

Episode II. William Canynges Receives Edward IV, AD 1461

The King and his retinue are greeted by the mayor and a great crowd of citizens, some cheering loudly whilst Lancastrian supporters were silent. The King and his retinue are entertained to a banquet whilst outside Lancastrians and Yorkists fight, which ends with the Lancastrians driven out. The King commends them for their loyalty but condemns Charles Baudin to death for his part in the fight. The King leaves.

Episode III. Discovery of America, AD 1497

Watchers report Cabot’s return in the ‘Matthew’ which comes up the Avon. The population of the town comes out to greet the heroes. A large civic procession comes forward led by John Drewes, Mayor of Bristol. John and Sebastian Cabot with the crew disembark. The Mayor welcomes the voyagers, who are solemnly blessed by Abbot Newlands. Cabot relays his travels and the marvels of Newfoundland, where he saw bears. Though they found no precious metals, they believe there would be some inland. Crewmembers bring out whalebones, hawks, wild cats, sealskins, and three terrified but sullen savages. The King’s official bestows a gold chain on Cabot for brining honour on England. The mayor closes the episode with a prophecy of the future greatness of Bristol and its part in the empire.

Episode IV. Queen Elizabeth in Bristol, AD 1574

Queen Elizabeth visited Bristol in her great progress of 1574, announced by batteries of canon and much popular enthusiasm. In accordance with custom, Her Majesty had at every stage of her journey been addressed by persons representing virtues. She is harangued by a boy personating fame, then Salutation, Gratulation, and Good Will.

Episode V. Venturers and Empire Builders, AD 1610-–1711

In this episode are three acts covering the period 1610–1711. The first depicts John Guy, a member (and later master) of the Society of Merchant Venturers, with his brother Philip and his brother-in-law William Colston, as well as 39 emigrants going from Bristol to found a settlement in Newfoundland. The second act deals with Captain Thomas James’s attempt in 1631 to discover the North-West Passage and, in a later interlude, Admiral Sir William Penn is introduced, father of the famous Quaker who founded Pennsylvania. The third act tells something of the story of the most famous of all British privateering voyages under command of Captain Woodes-Rogers who had with him Dr Dover, and William Dampier, who was the first sailor to set eyes on the Australian coast. This voyage is memorable for the rescue of Alexander Selkirk, whose adventures inspired Robinson Cruusoe.

Episode VI. The Women of Bristol, AD 1643

Prince Rupert’s royalist forces break the siege of Bristol at the top of Park Street. Dorothy Hazard, wife of the Puritan Vicar of St Ewen’s, gathered a body of 200 women and blocked the Frome Gate with woolsacks and rallied the Roundhead soldiers, but the city was lost and Colonel Fiennes made terms and gave up the city.

Episode VII. The Burke Election, AD 1774

This represents the 1774 Election of Edmund Burke to Parliament as the junior member. The episode features the chairing of Burke through the city. However, at the end of the Parliament in 1780, Burke had fallen out of favour. He withdrew after the first day of polling, having gained 18 votes.

Key historical figures mentioned

  • Henry III (1207–1272) king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine
  • Marshal, William (I) [called the Marshal], fourth earl of Pembroke (c.1146–1219) soldier and administrator
  • Edward IV (1442–1483) king of England and lord of Ireland
  • Canynges, William (1402–1474) merchant and ecclesiastical benefactor
  • Cabot, John [Zuan Caboto] (c.1451–1498) navigator
  • Cabot, Sebastian (c.1481/2–1557) explorer and cartographer
  • Elizabeth I (1533–1603) queen of England and Ireland
  • Rupert, prince and count palatine of the Rhine and duke of Cumberland (1619–1682) royalist army and naval officer
  • Fiennes, John, appointed Lord Fiennes under the protectorate (d. in or before 1710) parliamentarian army officer and politician
  • Selkirk, Alexander (1676–1721) mariner, castaway, and probable source of inspiration for the character Robinson Crusoe
  • Penn, William (1644–1718) Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania
  • Dampier, William (1651–1715) buccaneer and explorer
  • Burke, Edmund (1729/30–1797) politician and author

Musical production

The following pieces were performed:

  • P. Napier Miles. Overture, ‘From the West Country’.
  • 10th Century March, based on a song in honour of Charlemagne.
  • ‘Sumer Is Icumen In’, 1230.
  • Song of Roland, adapted
  • Laurence Minot, God Save King Henry
  • Melody from Bodleian MS, 1450 and the Chorus of Angels.
  • Plainsong from Bristol Cathedral MS, 14th or 15th century.
  • Purcell. ‘Hornpipe’, King Arthur.
  • Benet. ‘All Creatures Now Are Merry-Minded’.
  • Byrd. ‘Earl of Bedford’s March’.
  • Sir John Davies. ‘Elisabetha Regina.’
  • Weelkes. ‘Long Live Fair Oriana’.
  • Elway Bevin. Canticle, 1610.
  • Roeckel. Maypole Dance.
  • Assembly March of the Parliamentarians.
  • Byrd. Earl of Oxford’s March.
  • Jeremy Savile. ‘Here’s a Health Unto His Majesty’.
  • Hubert Hunt. A Noble Pageant Hymn, words by Fred E. Weatherly and sung by all performers.

Newspaper coverage of pageant

The Times
Aberdeen Journal
Manchester Guardian
Gloucester Citizen
Western Daily Press
Bristol Mail
Bristol Times and Mirror
Musical Times
Gloucester Chronicle
Bath Chronicle
Gloucester Journal
Exeter and Plymouth Gazette
Taunton Courier and Western Advertiser

Book of words

Bristol: Cradle of Empire. Bristol, 1924.

Other primary published materials


References in secondary literature

  • Driver, Felix and David Gillbert, eds. Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity. Manchester, 1999.

Archival holdings connected to pageant

  • Bristol Records Office: Pageant Scrapbook and Miscellaneous Records. 44408/4.
  • Bristol Central Library: Box file of material (programmes, music, text, reviews, photographs, etc.)

Sources used in preparation of pageant



The 1924 Bristol Pageant was dogged both by bad luck and hubris. The event made major losses and proved a sore reminder that, despite Bristol’s perceived historical place as ‘Cradle of Empire’, its history did not particularly interest the wider empire, sorely deflating the city’s self-image. Local pageants were almost invariably rooted in a place, which gave them their unique appeal. Uprooting them to a different location proved a costly failure.

The city had previously put on a huge pageant for the Bristol International Exhibition in 1914, which featured many of the same episodes, including the departure of John and Sebastian Cabot, the Siege of Bristol and the election of Edmund Burke. Whilst the pageant was a success, the Exhibition proved  overly-expensive and was cut short by the outbreak of war, losing some £27600. 'The Cradle of Empire' was mooted in late 1923, with no mention of the previous fiasco, though it was only finally agreed that a pageant would be held in late January the following year, less than four months before the opening performance.4 It was decided to invite the veteran pageant master, Frank Lascelles, to organise the pageant. Lascelles was also organising the Pageant of Empire, which was staged from 21 July to 30 August 1924 at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium. Due to Bristol’s connection to empire, it was decided that after the pageant had finished, the performers would travel to London to put on the pageant for three days at Wembley as part of the Empire Exhibition. The Western Daily Press wrote in March that: ‘Every pageant in this country had been a financial success, yet no pageant had ever had such a wonderful chance as Bristol’s will have at Wembley … People will be there from all parts of the British Empire and they will flock to see what the old city can produce’. The paper suggested that ‘It was exceedingly difficult from Bristol’s wealth of historical episodes to select the scenes from the number originally suggested’, and predicted ‘that in the course of a few years Bristol people would be anxious to have another pageant to show the scenes now excluded.’5 The Guarantees for the £10000 fund which the pageant hoped to secure were relatively slow to come, with only £7340 reached by late March.6 In fact, there was the admission, when it had become clear the pageant would not be a great success, that Bristolians had never truly got into the spirit of pageantry: ‘It cannot be said that the idea captured the enthusiasm of the citizens at the beginning’; and originally there had been ‘a good deal of apathy, if not hostility, to be overcome’.7

Nonetheless, given the short space of time to put together the event, there seems to have been a remarkable coming together, and by April the producers were turning away those who wished to act in the pageant due to oversubscription.8 The pageant narrative was relatively straightforward, even unexceptional, with various tournaments and celebrations and a visit from Elizabeth I. More interesting was the presentation of the internal strife which had beset Bristol, both in the episode portraying the Wars of the Roses where a dispute between Yorkists and Lancastrians disrupted a visit by Edward IV, and the episode in Bristol’s history in which Puritan women led by Dorothy Hazard wished to continue fighting after the men of the garrison had agreed to surrender. Hazard was a noted Bristol Puritan who went on to found an early Baptist church in the city and was unfavourably referred to as ‘like a hee-goat before the flock.’9 This episode is significant both for its portrayal of women as political actors and for presenting the Civil War from a perspective generally sympathetic to the Roundhead cause.

The episode with Burke was hardly the most flattering to Bristolians. Burke’s election to Parliament for Bristol in 1774 featured his famous ‘Bristol Speech’, when he defended the right of an MP to act against the wishes of his constituents as they had elected him for his talents and better judgment. The Bristol electorate, offended by his support for Irish free trade, unceremoniously voted him out of office in 1780.10 Though Burke retrospectively became a figure of local renown, his pompous presentation in this scene mocks his reputation in a gently satirical vein. Most controversial was the claim that America had been discovered not by Columbus but by John Cabot, who Bristol treated as an adoptive son with the Cabot Tower on Brandon Hill, a council ward, and a number of statues and street names commemorating the explorer. The Manchester Guardian also pointed out that all but two of his crew were Bristolians.11 The pageant concluded with a fireworks display staged by Mr Pickering, a theatrical artist who had been ‘at work, like Guy Fawkes, in the vaults of Pageant House’ preparing both the fireworks and the four double-barrelled guns which would fire some fifty rounds during the Civil War episode. Mr Pickering, the Bristol Times and Mirror, announced would be assisted in his endeavours by local Boy Scouts.12

In the event, the beginning of pageant was something of a damp squib. A dress rehearsal was to be viewed by 10000 elementary school children. Unfortunately, rain prevented the dress rehearsal from occurring (as it had almost every other full rehearsal); though the rain had stopped by the time the children arrived, ‘‘it was pointed out that a dress rehearsal was out of the question, not only on account of the probable damage to the costumes, but owing to the sodden state of the turf.’13 Worse still, the opening weekend was rained out in heavy downpours which would have made staging the pageant a quagmire.14 As the Western Daily Press ruefully remarked: ‘One of the essentials of Pageantry is fine weather, with as much sun as possible to bring out, with dazzling brilliance, the bright colours of medieval costumes’.15 However, unluckily for the organizers of the pageant, 1924 was to prove to be the ninth wettest year of the twentieth century (the wettest since 1903), with a total average rainfall of 965mm across England. Worse still, the South West was one of the most rained-on areas, with May being by far the wettest month. The meteorological station at Clifton recorded 21 days in which it rained in May, with seventeen days of heavy rain, almost double the average.16

When it did get off the ground, the pageant went without a hitch with the first performance falling on Empire Day: ‘A more appropriate way of celebrating Empire Day could hardly have been imagined than by the presentation on that day of a Pageant which has as its connecting theme Bristol’s unquestionable claim to be regarded as “the cradle of Empire.”’17 Queen Elizabeth I, played by Nancy Steadman, was declared to be ‘every inch a queen’, and the Bristol Times and Mirror wrote gushingly: ‘You must see the Pageant at Ashton Court, and you must take the children to see it. Nothing in pageantry has ever been attempted before in Bristol that nearly approaches this Pageant in its charming variety of incident and its lovely colour’18; this was echoed by the Western Daily Press which declared that ‘no patriotic citizen should neglect an opportunity which is distinctly unique.’19 Despite slightly lower than anticipated audiences, pickpockets, and road works on the way to the event, the pageant was a success – albeit a modest one.20

The Western Daily Gazette waxed increasingly lyrical and rose to new rhetorical heights, displaying a level of civic patriotism hard to match: ‘inevitably there comes a pardonable and greater pride of citizenship, a sense of closer relationship with those ancient mighty mariners, our fearless forefathers of former days, who, by their indomitable spirit, sheer pluck, and endurance spread the fair fame of Bristol far and wide to the very corners of the known world’. It added that the pageant was a ‘clarion call to all who hold the ancient city dear to be up and doing; an inspiration to exercise something of that enterprise … shown by Bristol’s sons of old. It is a call to re-capture something of their dauntless spirit, that we may be inspired to set out upon the uncharted seas of the undiscovered future with calm confidence, and strive to be worthy of a great heritage.’21

This launching-forth onto uncharted seas was to happen sooner rather than later, as the entirety of the pageant and its 2000 performers decamped to Wembley Stadium in the week after the pageant had finished what was to be its first run. The auspices for this voyage were not good: on top of the weather, which had been only slightly better than the opening weekend, Charles Fells Latham, producer and author of the sixth episode, died suddenly. As one anonymous writer remarked: ‘As though fate grudged us undue enthusiasm for the pageant, he has struck down one of our sons at the hour of his triumph.’22

In moving to the Empire Exhibition, the pageant became lost in exotic attractions, exhibitions and performances from around the globe, all of which were included in the admission fee whereas the pageant was not. On the day of its opening, when 141000 visited the Exhibition, only two or three thousand visited the pageant. The Times praised the event: ‘Few former pageants have contained a scene more brilliant or more satisfying than the splendid Fourth Episode, in which, with some 500 performers on stage, Bristol welcomes Queen Elizabeth’; however, it suggested that the dialogue during the section on Alexander Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe and Edmund Burke’s election speech was largely lost (despite use of a microphone) in the echoes of the nearly-empty stadium.23 Nonetheless, the paper pronounced it ‘more than worth the trip to Wembley’.24 The favourable coverage did little to attract an audience, however. On the second day, when an astounding 321232 people visited the Exhibition, there were still only a couple of thousand who paid to see the ‘Cradle of Empire’ in the stadium itself. The Manchester Guardian remarked that ‘It seemed a great pity that so few people went to see it at the Stadium because it is really a very effective performance and has been prepared at an enormous amount of trouble.’25 Even a visit by the Duke and Duchess of York only brought 7000 spectators.26 The Western Daily Press, which sent reporters down to London, acknowledged their hubris, suggesting that ‘there is so much to be seen without additional charge’ and acknowledging that ‘scenes depicting historic events arouse interest only on their native heath’.27 The paper was clearly trying to save face for its own pronouncements and for the city by writing that:

Colonials in goodly numbers have seen the Bristol Pageant and those who love the land of their adoption or birth and who, perhaps, had hitherto known or thought little of Bristol’s prominent share in Empire building, will doubtless have been deeply impressed … To them the name of Bristol will enshrine a new meaning … It may well be that the Bristol Pageant has unconsciously forged an unbreakable chain that will bind in lasting memory to the mother city those sturdy Dominion sons whose sires were reared in and set out upon their worldwide discoveries and adventures from ‘The Cradle of the Empire’.28

As the Times judged, ‘The Bristol Pageant deserved more support than it gained; but, amid such a wealth of competition of different kinds, there was perhaps too much attention in expecting the vast spaces of the Stadium to be filled for a local enterprise’.29

Even before the disastrous trip to Wembley, the organisers could see a serious shortfall in receipts owing largely to the inclement weather. Due to this it was decided to continue the run of the pageant after its return from London for a further ten days so that ‘the financial position of the enterprise would be much improved.’30 The weather again refused to play along, however, with a number of performances being rained off and attendance never getting very high, with an audience of just 5000 on the final evening.31 It was clear that those who wished to see the pageant had already done so, and empty seats were filled with free or heavily discounted admissions for handicapped children, orphans, and children from poorer parishes.32

After the pageant had finally ended its marathon run, it became clear how serious the financial shortfall was, with the treasurer reporting that against an estimate of £20000 in takings at Wembley they had secured ‘a few hundred pounds’. Despite being ‘satisfied that the effort has been well worthwhile for Bristol’s sake socially as well as commercially’ and trusting that the city pageant could ‘discharge the liabilities’, there was a deficit of over £3000 beyond the money the guarantors had put up (and lost).33 The Western Daily Press, in the spirit of civic pride, began a daily ‘shilling appeal’, publishing the names of locals who stumped up however small a fee to clear the debts. It had raised some £655 by the time it closed—an admirable effort, though not quite enough.34

Both the local press and the pageant organizers put a brave face on things, trying present the pageant as a success:

It was no mistake to bring Bristol’s past and present before the notice of millions of readers of the British press in this country and overseas; no mistake to revive the memories of those who knew Bristol; and no mistake to assemble thousands of our fellow citizens and make them supremely happy in producing those brilliant episodes from Bristol’s proud history. We who have gone down, financially, are proud that we have recalled more vividly than any books or pictures the glorious pages of our past. To every man, woman and child in Bristol, to every inhabitant of the country who can read a newspaper, Bristol has blown a clarion blast, recalling to thousands the story they already knew, telling for the first time to millions the part Bristol has played in building up our empire.35

In response to the somewhat pained question: ‘Was the work worthwhile?’ the columnists’ response was unequivocal: ‘There is no man in this great city who does not know that Bristol stands higher in the esteem of men to-day than she did before the year began.’36 The newspaper’s memory had soured a decade later, however, despite its enthusiastic support for rambling clubs made up of former pageant members that ran throughout the 1920s.37 Reporting a figure of only 30000 attendees (the real figure was around 100000), the paper asked: ‘Did you go to the Bristol Cradle of the Empire Pageant at Ashton Court? The Answer is not so certain because a solid week’s wet weather turned a brilliant and courageous artistic conception into a serious financial failure.’38

However one wished to present it, the 1924 Bristol Pageant was a failure compounded by horrific weather and a grave over-expectation of the level of interest that the British Empire had in Bristol’s history. Whilst hardly signalling the eclipse of Bristol’s civic spirit, or even the end of pageantry in Bristol (see A Pageant of College Green (1930) and Bristol Civic Pageant (1946)), the pageant hinted at the limitations of pageantry and the increasing dominance of the cultural life of the metropolis over that of those provincial cities which had formerly been the gateways to empire.


  1. ^ Western Daily Press, 25 June 1924, 6; 28 June 1924, 9.
  2. ^ Western Daily Press, 21 June 1924, 4.
  3. ^ All synopses taken from Bristol: Cradle of Empire (Bristol, 1924).
  4. ^ Western Daily Press, 28 January 1924, 5.
  5. ^ Western Daily Press, 7 March 1924, 8.
  6. ^ Western Daily Press, 24 March 1924, 9.
  7. ^ Western Daily Press, 27 May 1924, 13.
  8. ^ Western Daily Press, 5 April 1924, 7.
  9. ^ Patrick Collinson, Elizabethans (London, 2003), 124.
  10. ^ Paul Langford, ‘Burke, Edmund (1729/30–1797)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, accessed 18 December 2015,
  11. ^ Manchester Guardian, 27 April 1924, 9.
  12. ^ Bristol Times and Mirror, 23 May 1924, np, cutting in Bristol Records Office. 44408/4.
  13. ^ Western Daily Press, 28 June 1924, 9.
  14. ^ Western Daily Press, 26 May 1924, 6.
  15. ^ Western Daily Press, 27 May 1924, 15.
  16. ^ Meteorological Office and Air Ministry Report on British Rainfall, 1924 (London, 1925), 9, accessed 12 January 2016,; Met Office Extremes Fact Sheet, accessed 12 January 2016,
  17. ^ Western Daily Press, 27 May 1924, 15.
  18. ^ Bristol Times and Mirror, 23 May 1924, np, cutting in Bristol Records Office. 44408/4.
  19. ^ Western Daily Press, 26 May 1924, 5.
  20. ^ Western Daily Press, 28 May 1924, 9; 29 May 1924, 4; 31 May 1924, 7.
  21. ^ Western Daily Press, 27 May 1924, 15.
  22. ^ Western Daily Press, 2 June 1924, 5.
  23. ^ Times, 9 June 1924, 8.
  24. ^ Ibid.
  25. ^ Manchester Guardian, 10 June 1924, 7.
  26. ^ Western Daily Press, 11 June 1924, 5.
  27. ^ Ibid.
  28. ^ Ibid.
  29. ^ Times, 29 July 1924, 15.
  30. ^ Western Daily Press, 2 June 1924, 5.
  31. ^ Western Daily Press, 20 June 1924, 8.
  32. ^ Ibid.
  33. ^ Western Daily Press, 28 June 1924, 9.
  34. ^ Western Daily Press, 10 September 1924, 5.
  35. ^ Western Daily Press, 25 June 1924, 6.
  36. ^ Ibid.
  37. ^ Western Daily Press, 12 October 1925, 7.
  38. ^ Western Daily Press, 23 April 1935, 4.

How to cite this entry

Angela Bartie, Linda Fleming, Mark Freeman, Tom Hulme, Alex Hutton, Paul Readman, ‘Bristol: Cradle of Empire’, The Redress of the Past,